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Investing input definition for computer

investing input definition for computer

Goal seeking is the process of finding the correct input value when only the output is known. The function of goal seeking can be built into different kinds. Input as a noun means Something put into a system or expended in its operation to material, effort, etc. put into a project or process; investment. Input-output analysis (I-O) is a form of macroeconomic analysis based on the interdependencies between different economic sectors or industries. INVESTING NEWSWEEK MAGAZINE There's no bloat, so you're not. If the file compared to the further due diligence can be automatically information on the policy and click. From it about.

Managers and business firms invest in information technology and systems because they provide real economic value to the business. The decision to build or maintain an information system assumes that the returns on this investment will be superior to other investments in buildings, machines, or other assets. There are also situations in which firms invest in information systems to cope with governmental regulations or other environmental demands.

For instance, one of the major ways firms can comply with the reporting requirements of the recent Sarbanes-Oxley Act or the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act HIPAA is to build a document management system that can trace the flow of virtually all material documents it uses see Chapter In some cases, firms are required to invest in information systems simply because such investments are required to stay in business. We can see that from a business perspective, an information system is an important instrument for creating value for the firm.

Information systems enable the firm to increase its revenue or decrease its costs by providing information that helps managers make better decisions or that improves the execution of business processes. For example, the information system for analyzing supermarket checkout data illustrated in Figure can increase firm profitability by helping managers make better decisions on which products to stock and promote in retail supermarkets and as a result increase business value.

Every business has an information value chain, illustrated in Figure , in which raw information is systematically acquired and then transformed through various stages that add value to that information. The value of an information system to a business, as well as the decision to invest in any new information system, is, in large part, determined by the extent to which the system will lead to better management decisions, more efficient business processes, and higher firm profitability.

Although there are other reasons why systems are built, their primary purpose is to contribute to corporate value. The business perspective calls attention to the organizational and managerial nature of information systems. An information system represents an organizational and management solution, based on information technology, to a challenge posed by the environment.

Every chapter in this book begins with short case study that illustrates this concept. A diagram at the beginning of each chapter illustrates the relationship between a changing business environment and resulting management and organizational decisions to use IT as a solution to challenges generated by the business environment. To fully understand information systems, a manager must understand the broader organization, management, and information technology dimensions of systems see Figure and their power to provide solutions to challenges and problems in the business environment.

We refer to this broader understanding of information systems, which encompasses an understanding of the management and organizational dimensions of systems as well as the technical dimensions of systems, as information systems literacy. Information systems literacy includes a behavioral as well as a technical approach to studying information systems. Computer literacy, in contrast, focuses primarily on knowledge of information technology. Review the diagram at the beginning of the chapter that reflects this expanded definition of an information system.

These systems create value for DaimlerChrysler by making its production, supply chain, and quality control processes more efficient and cost effective. The diagram also illustrates how management, technology, and organizational elements work together to create the systems.

Each chapter of this text begins with a diagram similar to this one to help you analyze the chapter-opening case. You can use this diagram as a starting point for analyzing any information system or information system problem you encounter. Information systems are an integral part of organizations.

Indeed, for some companies, such as credit reporting firms, without an information system, there would be no business. The key elements of an organization are its people, structure, business processes, politics, and culture. We introduce these components of organizations here and describe them in greater detail in Chapters 2 and 3. Organizations are composed of different levels and specialties.

Their structures reveal a clear-cut division of labor. Experts are employed and trained for different functions. The major business functions, or specialized tasks performed by business organizations, consist of sales and marketing, manufacturing and production, finance and accounting, and human resources see Table TABLE Major Business Functions Chapter 2 provides more detail on these business functions and the ways in which they are supported by information systems.

Each chapter of this text concludes with a Make IT Your Business section showing how chapter topics relate to each of these functional areas. The section also provides page numbers in each chapter where these functional examples can be found. An organization coordinates work through a structured hierarchy and through its business processes, which we defined earlier. The hierarchy arranges people in a pyramid structure of rising authority and responsibility.

The upper levels of the hierarchy consist of managerial, professional, and technical employees, whereas the lower levels consist of operational personnel. These rules guide employees in a variety of procedures, from writing an invoice to responding to customer complaints. Some of these procedures have been formalized and written down, but others are informal work practices, such as a requirement to return telephone calls from coworkers or customers, that are not formally documented.

Many business processes are incorporated into information systems, such as how to pay a supplier or how to correct an erroneous bill. Organizations require many different kinds of skills and people. Each organization has a unique culture, or fundamental set of assumptions, values, and ways of doing things, that has been accepted by most of its members. Different levels and specialties in an organization create different interests and points of view.

These views often conflict. Conflict is the basis for organizational politics. Information systems come out of this cauldron of differing perspectives, conflicts, compromises, and agreements that are a natural part of all organizations. In Chapter 3 we examine these features of organizations and their role in the development of information systems in greater detail.

Cemex uses a sophisticated scheduling system to expedite cement delivery. Cemex manages deliveries and all of its manufacturing and production processes from a highly computerized control room. The company is moving toward a digital firm organization. FIGURE Data and information Raw data from a supermarket checkout counter can be processed and organized to produce meaningful information such as the total unit sales of dish detergent or the total sales revenue from dish detergent for a specific store or sales territory.

FIGURE Functions of an information system An information system contains information about an organization and its surrounding environment. Three basic activities—input, processing, and output—produce the information organizations need. Feedback is output returned to appropriate people or activities in the organization to evaluate and refine the input. Environmental factors such as customers, suppliers, competitors, stockholders, and regulatory agencies interact with the organization and its information systems.

UPS information systems use these data to track packages while they are being transported. FIGURE The business information value chain From a business perspective, information systems are part of a series of value-adding activities for acquiring, transforming, and distributing information that managers can use to improve decision making, enhance organizational performance, and, ultimately, increase firm profitability.

FIGURE Information systems are more than computers Using information systems effectively requires an understanding of the organization, management, and information technology shaping the systems. An information system creates value for the firm as an organizational and management solution to challenges posed by the environment.

Internet technology standards make it possible for DaimlerChrysler to link to the systems of many different companies. In Chapters 4 and 8 we describe the Web and other Internet capabilities in greater detail. We also discuss relevant features of Internet technology throughout the text because it affects so many aspects of information systems in organizations.

The IT infrastructure provides the foundation, or platform, on which the firm can build its specific information systems. Each organization must carefully design and manage its information technology infrastructure so that it has the set of technology services it needs for the work it wants to accomplish with information systems. Chapters 6 through 10 of this text examine each major technology component of information technology infrastructure and show how they all work together to create the technology platform for the organization.

It specifies the required procedures for identifying packages with both sender and recipient information, taking inventory, tracking the packages en route, and providing package status reports for UPS customers and customer service representatives. The system must also provide information to satisfy the needs of managers and workers. UPS drivers need to be trained in both package pickup and delivery procedures and in how to use the package tracking system so that they can work efficiently and effectively.

A what-if analysis is a process of changing values in Microsoft Excel cells to see how these changes will affect formula outcomes on the worksheet. When you are goal seeking, you are performing what-if analysis on a given value, or the output.

So, in essence, you would be creating a scenario by asking "what if the output was X"—or basically, a cause and effect situation. For some of the more complex problems, people will often use computer software. A spreadsheet program like Microsoft Excel has a goal seeking tool built-in. It allows the user to determine the desired input value for a formula when the output value is already known. This feature can help the user determine things like the interest rate a borrower needs to qualify for the input if she only knows how much she can afford to pay each month the output.

But there is one caveat to using goal seeking software: It only works if there is one input value. If we take the example from above, if you want to figure out the total amount of the loan and the monthly payment, goal seeking software won't work. You'd probably need an add-on in order to figure out multiple variables.

As mentioned above, goal seeking software will only work if you already know the output value or the result but want to determine one input value. Here are some key steps you can follow if you want to use the goal seek feature in the program:. Now you will have to determine the interest rate. You can do this by using the Goal Seek function in Excel and enter the values you already have.

A goal-seeking entrepreneur is someone who uses goal seeking to determine how they can reach their ultimate goals. That means they will have to determine how many hours they will be able to or is willing to work during the year, and therefore, how much they will earn for each hour to reach their goal. Financial Ratios. Loan Basics. Financial Analysis. Portfolio Management. Your Money. Personal Finance.

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